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Biology Form 1
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Cell specialization

This is the structural modification of undifferentiated cells to carry out a particular function.

There are different type of cells varied in structure and functions.

Specialized cells carry out specific functions.


Examples of Specialized Animal cells

Nerve cells

Elongated with axon and dendrites to receive and transmit impulses

Function: Conducts impulse.


Red Blood Cell

Biconcave in shape to increase the surface exchange of gases

Contains haemoglobin to transport respiratory gases

Function: Transport respiratory gases.


White blood cell

Are amoeboid to engulf pathogens

Also contains antibodies to fight pathogens

Function: Protects the body against disease causing pathogens.


Sperm cell


Has numerous mitochondria to provide more energy for propulsion.

Has a long tail for propulsion towards the ovum.

Also streamlined to reduce resistance during propulsion

Function: Fuses with the ovum in the process of fertilization.


Muscle cell

It is elongated with elastic fibrils that contract causing movement.

Contain numerous mitochondria to provide energy for contraction thus movement

Function: Contracts to bring out movement.

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