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NUTRITION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS
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Biology Form 1
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Polysaccharides

They are formed when many monosaccharides or disaccharides link up together in a process called condensation.

They are long chains consisting of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides.

Properties of Polysaccharides

  • Insoluble in water.
  • Not sweet tasting.
  • Are non-crystallisable.
  • Are non-reducing sugars.

Examples

Starch, chitin, cellulose and glycogen.

Starch: Its storage carbohydrate in plants. Starch molecules accumulate to form starch grains in chloroplasts and cells of storage organs.

Glycogen: It is a storage carbohydrate in animals. It is stored in the liver and muscles.

Cellulose: It is a structural carbohydrate in plants. It is found in cell wall.

Chitin: It is a structural carbohydrate found in the cell walls of Fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods e.g. insects.

 

Functions of Polysaccharides

  • Hydrolysed into monosaccharides, which are then oxidized during respiration to release energy.
  • Storage compounds e.g starch and glycogen
  • Structural compounds e.g. cellulose and chitin

 

Differences between Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides

Polysaccharides

Soluble in water

Insoluble in water

Crystallisable

Non-crystallisable

Reducing sugars

Non-reducing sugars

 

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